Statue base for Caesar Maximus, erected by the city of Philippopolis

Monument III.1515
Editor
Georgi Mihailov, Nicolay Sharankov
Type of monument
base
Material
marble
Find place
Cherna Gora
Observed in
Stara Zagora, exposed at an open-air site.
Origin
Cellae
Dimensions
height 160 cm, width 80 cm, depth 60 cm
Institution and inventory
Letter size
height 2.5-5 cm
Layout description
Rectangular statue base, moulded above and below. The upper part is decorated with acroteria. Inscription on the front side.
Decoration description
Text
Category of inscription
honorary inscription for emperor - prose
Date
AD 236-238
Dating criteria
reign
Images
Text

Ἀγαθῆι (vac.) τύχηι
τὸν μέγιστον καὶ θειότατον
Καίσαρα ((·)) Γ(άιον) ((·)) Ἰούλιον Οὐῆρον
⟦ [Μ]άξιμο[ν]⟧ Εὐτυχῆ Εὐσεβῆ Σεβ(αστὸν) ((·))
5υἱὸν τοῦ μεγίστου καὶ θειοτάτου
Αὐτοκράτορος ((·)) ⟦Γ(αίου) ((·)) Ἰουλίου Οὐήρου⟧
Μάξι[μ]είνου⟧ Εὐτυχοῦς Εὐσεβοῦς
Σεβ(αστοῦ) ((·)) ἡ λαμπροτάτη μητρόπολις τῆς
Θρᾳκῶν ἐπαρχείας Φιλιππόπολις τὸν
10 τῆς οἰκουμένης δεσπότην ὑπατεύοντος
τῆς ἐπαρχείας ((·)) Τ(ίτου) ((·)) Κλωδίου Σατορνείνου,
πρωταρχοῦντος ((·)) Αὐρ(ηλίου) ((·)) Ἀπολλωνίδου Ἀπ<ο>⸢λ⸣λοδώρο[υ]
τοῦ αὐτοῦ κα⸢ὶ⸣ ἐπιμελουμένου ἐκ τῶν ὑπερπαιόντων
χρημάτων. (vac.) Εὐτυχῶς.

AΓΑΘHΙ vacat ΤYΧΗΙ
ΤONMEΓΙΣΤΟNΚΑIΘΕΙOΤΑΤΟN
ΚΑIΣΑΡΑ · Γ · IΟYΛΙΟNΟYHΡΟN
[.]A....[.]ΕYΤΥΧHΕYΣΕΒHΣΕΒ ·
5ΥIONΤΟYMΕΓIΣΤΟΥΚΑIΘΕΙΟΤAΤΟΥ
ΑYΤΟΚΡAΤΟΡΟΣ · Γ · IΟΥΛIΟΥΟYHΡΟΥ
....[.]....ΥΕYΤΥΧΟYΣΕYΣΕΒΟYΣ
ΣΕΒ · HΛΑMΠΡΟΤAΤΗMΗΤΡOΠΟΛΙΣΤHΣ
ΘΡAΚΩNEΠΑΡΧΕIΑΣΦΙΛΙΠΠOΠΟΛΙΣΤON
10ΤHΣΟIΚΟΥMENΗΣΔΕΣΠOΤΗNYΠΑΤΕYΟNΤΟΣ
ΤHΣEΠΑΡΧΕIΑΣ · Τ · ΚΛΩΔIΟΥΣΑΤΟΡNΕINΟΥ
ΠΡΩΤΑΡΧΟYNΤΟΣ · ΑYΡ · AΠΟΛΛΩNIΔΟΥAΠ[.]ΑΛΟΔΩ..[.]
ΤΟYΑYΤΟYΚΑΤEΠΙMΕΛΟΥMENΟΥEΚΤΩNYΠΕΡΠΑΙONΤΩN
ΧΡΗMAΤΩN vacat ΕYΤΥΧΩΣ
Text
To Good Fortune! To the greatest and most divine Emperor Caesar Gaius Iulius Verus Maximus Felix Pius Augustus, son of the greatest and most divine Emperor Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus Felix Pius Augustus. The most splendid metropolis of the province of Thrace Philippopolis (honoured with this statue) the Lord of the world, when Titus Clodius Saturninus was governor of the province of Thrace, and Aurelius Apollonides son of Apollodorus was first archon; the latter was also in charge (of the erection of the statue), from the surplus funds. May it be fortunate!
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⤦ n: 1

tag: lb
Ἀγαθῆι

lemma: ἀγαθός
tag: w

extent: unknown
tag: space
τύχηι

lemma: τύχη
tag: w
⤦ n: 2

tag: lb
τὸν

tag: w
μέγιστον

lemma: μέγας
tag: w
καὶ

tag: w
θειότατον

lemma: θεῖος
tag: w
⤦ n: 3

tag: lb
Καίσαρα

lemma: Καῖσαρ
tag: w

type: dot
tag: g
Γάιον Ἰούλιον Οὐῆρον Μάξιμον

ref: Thraxson
type: emperor
tag: persName
Γάιον

tag: name

type: dot
tag: g
Ἰούλιον

tag: name
Οὐῆρον

tag: name
⤦ n: 4

tag: lb
Μάξιμον

tag: del
Εὐτυχῆ

lemma: Εὐτυχής
tag: w
Εὐσεβῆ

lemma: Εὐσεβής
tag: w
Σεβαστὸν

lemma: Σεβαστός
tag: w

type: dot
tag: g
⤦ n: 5

tag: lb
υἱὸν

lemma: υἱός
tag: w
τοῦ

tag: w
μεγίστου

lemma: μέγας
tag: w
καὶ

tag: w
θειοτάτου

lemma: θεῖος
tag: w
⤦ n: 6

tag: lb
Αὐτοκράτορος

lemma: Αὐτοκράτωρ
tag: w

type: dot
tag: g
Γαίου Ἰουλίου Οὐήρου Μάξιμείνου

type: emperor
ref: Thrax
tag: persName
Γαίου Ἰουλίου Οὐήρου

tag: del
Γαίου

tag: name
Γαίου

tag: expan
Γ

tag: abbr
αίου

tag: ex

type: dot
tag: g
Ἰουλίου

tag: name
Οὐήρου

tag: name
⤦ n: 7

tag: lb
Μάξιμείνου

tag: del
Εὐτυχοῦς

lemma: Εὐτυχής
tag: w
Εὐσεβοῦς

lemma: Εὐσεβής
tag: w
⤦ n: 8

tag: lb
Σεβαστοῦ

lemma: Σεβαστός
tag: w

type: dot
tag: g

tag: w
λαμπροτάτη

lemma: λαμπρός
tag: w
μητρόπολις

lemma: μητρόπολις
tag: w
τῆς

tag: w
⤦ n: 9

tag: lb
Θρᾳκῶν

type: ethnic
ref: Thrace
tag: placeName
ἐπαρχείας

lemma: ἐπαρχία
tag: w
Φιλιππόπολις

ref: Phil
tag: placeName
τὸν

tag: w
⤦ n: 10

tag: lb
τῆς

tag: w
οἰκουμένης

lemma: οἰκουμένη
tag: w
δεσπότην

lemma: δεσπότης
tag: w
ὑπατεύοντος

lemma: ὑπατεύω
tag: w
⤦ n: 11

tag: lb
τῆς

tag: w
ἐπαρχείας

lemma: ἐπαρχία
tag: w

type: dot
tag: g
Τίτου Κλωδίου Σατορνείνου

ref: Saturninus
type: official
nymRef: Τίτος Κλώδιος Σατορνεῖνος
tag: persName
Τίτου

ref: Titus
nymRef: Τίτος
type: praenomen
tag: name

type: dot
tag: g
Κλωδίου

ref: Clodius
nymRef: Κλώδιος
type: gentilicium
tag: name
Σατορνείνου

ref: Saturninus
nymRef: Σατορνῖνος
type: cognomen
tag: name
,

tag: #text
⤦ n: 12

tag: lb
πρωταρχοῦντος

lemma: πρωταρχέω
tag: w

type: dot
tag: g
Αὐρηλίου Ἀπολλωνίδου Ἀπολαλοδώρου

ref: AT016
type: official
nymRef: Αὐρήλιος Ἀπολλωνίδης Ἀπολλοδώρου
tag: persName
Αὐρηλίου

nymRef: Αὐρήλιος
ref: Aurelius
type: gentilicium
tag: name

type: dot
tag: g
Ἀπολλωνίδου

ref: Apollonides
nymRef: Ἀπολλωνίδης
type: cognomen
tag: name
Ἀπολαλοδώρου

nymRef: Ἀπολλόδωρος
ref: Apollodorus
tag: name
Ἀπ

tag: #text
ο

tag: supplied
λα

tag: choice
λ

tag: corr
α

tag: sic
λοδώ

tag: #text
ρο

tag: unclear
υ

tag: supplied
⤦ n: 13

tag: lb
τοῦ

tag: w
αὐτοῦ

lemma: αὐτός
tag: w
καὶτ

tag: w
κα

tag: #text
ὶτ

tag: choice

tag: corr
τ

tag: sic
ἐπιμελουμένου

lemma: ἐπιμελέομαι
tag: w
ἐκ

lemma: ἐκ
tag: w
τῶν

tag: w
ὑπερπαιόντων

lemma: ὑπερπαίω
tag: w
⤦ n: 14

tag: lb
χρημάτων

lemma: χρῆμα
tag: w
.

tag: #text

extent: unknown
tag: space
Εὐτυχῶς

lemma: εὐτυχῶς
tag: w
.

tag: #text
Apparatus
Letters in ligature:
2 νμε, νκ;
3 ηρ;
4 ηε;
5 με;
7 [μ]ε, ου (εὐσεβοῦς);
8 μπρ, τημη, τη;
9 ωνε;
10 τησ, με, νησ, την, τε, ντ;
11 τησ, νε;
12 ωτ, ων, ωρ, ο[υ];
13 με, με, των, πε, ντων;
14 ημ, ων.
Apparatus:
The text of the inscription follows the edition of Mihailov and is rendered with changes after a comparison through personal observation by N. Sharankov.
3-4,6-7careless damnatio memoriae, almost all the letters are clearly legible;
12the stone reads: ΑΠΑΛΟΔWΡ̣Ο̣ - the second Α was probably an attempt to inscribe a little O into a Λ;
12-13 IGBulg reads: Ἀπολλωνίδου Ἀπαλοδώ/του (sic) αὐτοῦ;
13the stone reads: ΚΑΤΕΠΙΜΕΛΟΥΜΕΝΟΥ;
14Εὐτυχῶς is written with slightly inclined letters.
Commentary

Gaius Iulius Verus Maximus, son of Emperor Maximinus Thrax, bears the title of Augustus, although he was officially only Caesar (proclaimed in the first months of AD 236). The authorities in Philippopolis probably flattered the imperial family, since they titled Maximus as Augustus in other inscriptions as well: AE 2006, 1247; AE 2006, 1248; AE 2006, 1251; and IGBulg 1374.

Titus Clodius Saturninus was probably the last governor of Thrace under Emperor Maximinus Thrax, because a milestone with his name was prepared but never used (AE 2006, 1251).

Marcus Aurelius Apollonides, son of Apollodorus, is attested as first archon of Philippopolis also in two inscriptions from Plovdiv - AE 2006, 1247 and AE 2006, 1248. The text of the latter is identical with this one, and AE 2006, 1247 differs only in the name of the provincial governor Simonius Iulianus. Aurelius Apollonides was also archpriest of Philippopolis according to an inscription from Hissar (IGBulg 1476).

We should mention the use of the verb ὑπερπαίω, attested only in some inscriptions from the territories of Philippopolis and Augusta Traiana dated to the second quarter of the III c. AD, always in the same formula (IGBulg 1510; IGBulg 1564; IGBulg 1565; IGBulg 1566; AE 2006, 1247; AE 2006, 1248). The city authorities, which erected these inscriptions, were probably trying to avoid accusations of dissipation in a period of economic crisis.

The use of inclined letters in Εὐτυχῶς on the last line reflects the practice of approving official documents with hand-written resolution by a higher official below the text (cf. IGBulg 5409).

Bibliography
Mihailov, Georgius. Inscriptiones Graecae in Bulgaria repertae. Vol. III.1, 1961.