Funerary inscription for Aurelius Maximus son of Daezeris

Monument V. 5180
Editor
Georgi Mihailov, Nicolay Sharankov
Type of monument
stele
Material
limestone
Find place
Gorna Beshovitsa
Origin
built in a Late Antique tomb in Gorna Beshovitsa village
Dimensions
height 206 cm, width 72 cm, depth 25 cm
Institution and inventory
Letter size
height 2.5 - 3 cm
Layout description
Stele with pediment and acroteria, four fields with reliefs; inscription in the lower part in a concave field, below the third relief; the last line is on the lower frame of the epigraphic field.
Decoration description
The pediment depicts embraced Cupid and Psyche. In each of the two acroteria - a winged Genius with a wreath (the left acroterion is now missing). In the uppermost relief, two Thracian Riders with fluttering chlamydes facing each other (probably Aurelius Maximus and Aurelius Valerianus). The left rider has a short spear in his raised right hand (so-called type B). The right rider also has a spear in his right hand, visible behind the horse's head. Below each rider there is a dog chasing a rabbit. On the second relief field, five standing figures in full face. The first one from the left is of a soldier with his sword (Aurelius Valerianus), then a tiny figure of a boy. The third figure is of a man with a spear in his right hand (Aurelius Maximus), next to him, a woman with veiled head (Rhodope) and in the end of the relief field - a smaller figure of a girl with waved hair, bearing in front of her an unidentified object. The third relief field is of lesser height, frieze-like, with three couples of competing athletes - boxers, fighters, and jumpers (hurdlers?). In the fourth relief field, below the inscription, a kantharos with curved handles and two vines with leaves and grapes coming out of it. Traces of red paint were preserved on the vines when the stele was found.
Text
Category of inscription
funerary inscription - prose
Date
III c. AD, probably after AD 212
Dating criteria
lettering, onomastics, iconography, historical-context
Text

Αὐρ(ήλιος) ((·)) Μάξιμος Δαεζερεος
ζῶντος ἑαυτοῦ ((·)) ἑαυτῷ ((·)) καὶ
⸢τ⸣ῷ ἀδελφῷ ((·)) Αὐρ(ηλίῳ) ((·)) Οὐαλε-
ριανῷ ((·)) στρ(ατιώτῃ) ((·)) χώρ(της) ((·)) ((·)) α´ ((·)) Βρακά-
5ρου ((·)) πεπτωκότι ἐν πολέμῳ
ἐκ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων ἑαυτῶν
μνήμης ((·)) χάριν στήλην ἀνέστη-
σαν ((·)) ἅμα συμβίῳ ((·)) Ῥοδόπῃ.
(vac.1)
10Χαῖρε, (vac.1) παροδεῖτα.

ΑYΡ · MAΞΙMΟΣΔΑΕΖΕΡΕΟΣ
ΖΩNΤΟΣEΑΥΤΟY · EΑΥΤΩ · ΚΑI
ΠΩAΔΕΛΦΩ · ΑYΡ · ΟYΑΛΕ
ΡΙΑNΩ · ΣΤΡ · ΧΩΡ · · Α · ΒΡΑΚA
5ΡΟΥ · ΠΕΠΤΩΚOΤΙENΠΟΛEMΩ
EΚΤΩNYΠΑΡΧONΤΩNEΑΥΤΩN
MNHMΗΣ · ΧAΡΙNΣΤHΛΗNANEΣΤΗ
ΣΑN · AMΑΣΥMΒIΩ · PΟΔOΠH
vacat
10ΧΑIΡΕ vacat ΠΑΡΟΔΕIΤΑ
Text
Aurelius Maximus, son of Daezeris, while still alive, erected this monument together with his spouse Rhodope in memory for him and for his brother Aurelius Valerianus, a soldier from the cohort of the Bracari, fallen in war. Farewell, passer-by!
⤦ n: 1

tag: lb
Αὐρήλιος Μάξιμος Δαεζερεος

nymRef: Αὐρήλιος Μάξιμος Δαεζερεος
tag: persName
Αὐρήλιος

ref: Aurelius
nymRef: Αὐρήλιος
type: gentilicium
tag: name

type: dot
tag: g
Μάξιμος

ref: Maximus
nymRef: Μάξιμος
type: cognomen
tag: name
Δαεζερεος

ref: Daezeris
nymRef: Δαεζερις
tag: name
⤦ n: 2

tag: lb
ζῶντος

lemma: ζῶ
tag: w
ἑαυτοῦ

lemma: ἑαυτοῦ
tag: w

type: dot
tag: g
ἑαυτῷ

lemma: ἑαυτοῦ
tag: w

type: dot
tag: g
καὶ

tag: w
⤦ n: 3

tag: lb
τπῷ

tag: w
τπ

tag: choice
τ

tag: corr
π

tag: sic

tag: #text
ἀδελφῷ

lemma: ἀδελφός
tag: w

type: dot
tag: g
Αὐρηλίῳ Οὐαλε ριανῷ

type: attested
ref: AT009
nymRef: Αὐρήλιος Οὐαλεριανός Δαεζερεος
tag: persName
Αὐρηλίῳ

ref: Aurelius
nymRef: Αὐρήλιος
type: gentilicium
tag: name
Αὐρηλίῳ

tag: expan
Αὐρ

tag: abbr
ηλίῳ

tag: ex

type: dot
tag: g
Οὐαλε ριανῷ

ref: Valerianus
nymRef: Οὐαλεριανός
type: cognomen
tag: name
Οὐαλε

tag: #text
⤦ n: 4

break: no
tag: lb
ριανῷ

tag: #text

type: dot
tag: g
στρατιώτῃ

lemma: στρατιώτης
tag: w

type: dot
tag: g
χώρτης α Βρακά ρου

type: military
tag: orgName
χώρτης

lemma: χώρτη
tag: w

type: dot
tag: g

type: dot
tag: g
α

value: 1
tag: num

type: dot
tag: g
Βρακά ρου

type: ethnic
tag: placeName
Βρακά

tag: #text
⤦ n: 5

break: no
tag: lb
ρου

tag: #text

type: dot
tag: g
πεπτωκότι

lemma: πίπτω
tag: w
ἐν

lemma: ἐν
tag: w
πολέμῳ

lemma: πόλεμος
tag: w
⤦ n: 6

tag: lb
ἐκ

lemma: ἐκ
tag: w
τῶν

tag: w
ὑπαρχόντων

lemma: ὑπάρχω
tag: w
ἑαυτῶν

lemma: ἑαυτοῦ
tag: w
⤦ n: 7

tag: lb
μνήμης

lemma: μνήμη
tag: w

type: dot
tag: g
χάριν

lemma: χάρις
tag: w
στήλην

lemma: στήλη
tag: w
ἀνέστη σαν

lemma: ἀνίστημι
tag: w
ἀνέστη

tag: #text
⤦ n: 8

break: no
tag: lb
σαν

tag: #text

type: dot
tag: g
ἅμα

lemma: ἅμα
tag: w
συμβίῳ

lemma: σύμβιος
tag: w

type: dot
tag: g
Ῥοδόπῃ

nymRef: Ῥοδόπη
tag: persName
.

tag: #text
⤦ n: 9

tag: lb

quantity: 1
unit: character
tag: space
⤦ n: 10

tag: lb
Χαῖρε

lemma: χαίρω
tag: w
,

tag: #text

quantity: 1
unit: character
tag: space
παροδεῖτα

lemma: παροδίτης
tag: w
.

tag: #text
Apparatus
Letters in ligature:
1 ος, ος;
2 ων, ος;
3 πω, δε;
4 νω, ωρ;
5 ου, πε, τωκ, μω;
6 των, αρ, ντωνε, των;
7 μνημης, νς, τη, νε, τη;
8 αν, μβ.
Apparatus:
The letters have been painted with red.
3 In the beginning of the line ΠΩ in ligature instead of ΤΩ. The error was probably corrected with paint.
5 IGBulg: πεπτοκότι.
Commentary

The information about the monument and the images are courtesy of Vratsa Regional Museum of History, the content is further revised by Nikolay Sharankov.

The patronymic of Aurelius Maximus Δαεζερεος (in the nominative, Δαεζερις) is Thracian, unattested elsewhere. It is formed of two elements, known from other compound names - the first attested in names such as Δαειπωρα and possibly Δαικωσης, and the second, -ζερις, in Βρινκα-ζερις, Δουρα-ζερις etc.

The inscription displays influence from the Latin language and epigraphic habit: transliterated or literally translated Latin phrases and frequent use of interpunction.

The unusual phrase ζῶντος ἑαυτοῦ (an absolute genitive, lit. "while himself being alive") represents a literal translation of the formula "se vivo" (an absolute ablative).

In the name of the cohort, the form Βρακάρου is a transcription of the Latin genitive plural "Bracarum", which in that late period was pronounced without the final -m.

First cohort of the Bracari (cohors I Bracarum) is named after the Celtic tribe of the Bracari from the Iberian Peninsula (modern North-Western Portugal), where it was originally recruited from. During the second half of the I c. AD, the cohort is attested in Mauretania, and was transferred to the province of Lower Moesia in the early II c. AD.

Bibliography
Mihailov, Georgius. Inscriptiones Graecae in Bulgaria repertae. Vol. V, 1997.

Иванов, Теофил. Новооткрит старохристиянски некропол при с. Горна Бешовица, Врачанско. In: Археология Vol. IV/2, 1962, p. 38-48.